They are highly congested in cities. Their bridges and culverts are narrow. The Railways are the main artery of inland transport in India. The railways are years old in India.
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The first train moved between Mumbai and Thane in The total length of railways is about km. India has the second largest railway network in Asia.
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The Indian railways carry 12 billion passengers and 1, billion tones of goods a year. It is the largest public sector undertaking of country. India has a network of station spread over a route length of 68 Thousand km. The length of running track is , Railways Network in India. Progress made by Indian Railways. Priority has been assigned to conversion of meter gauge lines into broad gouge.
Railways tracks are electrified. Steam engines have been replaced by diesel and electrical engines. Railways have specialized themselves in carrying over long distances heavy and bulky goods including containers. Most of trains are electric and diesel locomotives. Fast moving trains and public amenities at railway station is introduced.
Railway made a significant problem in the area of track replacement. Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains are introduced. At present, the railways comprise three gauges-broad 1. Efforts are being made to convert meter gouge track to broad gauge track.
Modern Means Of Transport, Essay Sample
At present Measures to reduce the burden of the Railways. Railway Zones. Far administrative convenience the Railways have been divided into zones.
The zones and headquarters are as under:. Characteristics of the Distribution of Railway Network:. The rail network is highly linked to the level of agricultural development.
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It is connected with all parts through fast trains. The rugged terrain, backward economy and sparse population are responsible for sparse rail network.
No railway is found in Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur and Nagaland. A long trunk route runs all along the East coast but such a rail track is missing along the Western Ghats due to outcrops of ghats being very close to the coast. Pipe Line Transport. In the past pipelines were used to carry water to cities and industries, these are also used for transportation of crude of natural gas and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants.
Pipelines have made it possible to set-up big thermal power-plants in a shortest possible time and near to market. Major categories of Pipelines.
There are four major networks of pipeline transportation in our country:. Another major pipeline originates from salaya in Gujrat and carries crude oil to Jalandhar in Punjab via Viramgam, Delhi Mathura and Panipat. Its branches connect koyali near Vadodra, Chakshu and numerous other places. It is kilometer long. Fourth major pipeline also connects Mumbai high with Mumbai and Mumbai with Pune. Some more pipelines are proposed pipelines they will be laid completed and made operational in the near future :. India has large number of perennial rivers and a very long coast line of km.
Water transport is of two types Inland Water Transport. Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. These are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods. India has inland navigable waterways of 14, km in length. Out of these, only km are navigable by mechanized boats. National Waterways. Government of India has declared the following inland waterways as national waterways.
The Ganga River between Allahabad and Haldia covering a distance of km. The Brahmputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri km. The west coast canal between kollam and kottapuram covering a distance of km. The Champakara canal covering a distance of 14 km. The Vdyogmandal canal covering a distance of 22 km. Major Navigable River and Canals. The Brahmaputra and the Ganga are important navigable rivers. The lower reaches of the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Mahanadi, the Narmada and the Tapi and their canals are also navigable. Ocean Water Transport.
Water transport along the coast is also very important in India. It is a cheap means of transport. The long coastline can be properly utilized for the purpose of transport of goods along the west and east coasts of the country from one part to another. Major Sea Ports.
About km long coast line of India is served by 12 major and medium and minor seaports. The major ports handle about 15, cargo vessels per annum. Our ports handle more imports than exports. Coastwise distribution of major seaports is as follow Tuti corin. Mumbai is the largest sea port of India. This port really makes Mumbai the gate Way of India. Problems of the ports. Mismatch between existing capacity and demand for traffic. Creation of capacity of the ports is not planned. For the major types of propulsion used in modern forms of transportation, see energy conversion. For forms of transportation for military applications, see military technology.
Essays on modern means of transport essay
For the engineering infrastructure on which transportation systems depend, see roads and highways ; bridge ; canals and inland waterways ; harbours and sea works ; lighthouse ; tunnels and underground excavations. For the place of transportation in law, see air law ; carriage of goods ; maritime law. Article Media. Info Print Cite.
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Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. Before the development of steam propulsion, armies depended for mobility on the muscles of men and animals and the force of the wind. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Energy conversion , the transformation of energy from forms provided by nature to forms that can be used by humans. Over the centuries a wide array of devices and systems has been developed for this purpose.
Some of these energy converters are quite simple.